Arctic Tern


Arctic Tern (Sterna paradisaea) Details

Sterna paradisaea, commonly known as the Arctic Tern, is a medium-sized seabird with a white body, black cap, and red bill. It has long, pointed wings and a deeply forked tail. It breeds in the Arctic and sub-Arctic regions of Europe, Asia, and North America, and migrates to the Antarctic and back each year, making it the bird with the longest migration. It typically lives for 20-30 years and its current population is estimated to be around 1.5 million individuals.

Name Origin: The scientific name of the organism, Sterna paradisaea, is derived from the Latin words for "stern" and "paradise". The name is thought to have been given to the species due to its beautiful plumage, which is reminiscent of a paradise.

Related Species: Sterna hirundo, Sterna albifrons, Sterna bengalensis, Sterna repressa, Sterna sandvicensis, Sterna dougallii

Sterna paradisaea scientific classification

Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Aves

Class: Aves

Order: Aves

Family: Laridae

Genus: Charadriiformes

Species: Bird

Understanding the Arctic Tern habitat

The Sterna paradisaea, commonly known as the Arctic Tern, is a migratory bird that can be found in the Arctic and sub-Arctic regions. They prefer to live in coastal areas, such as estuaries, lagoons, and beaches, where they can find plenty of food. They also like to nest in open areas with plenty of vegetation, such as grasslands and marshes. The Arctic Tern's habitat is unique in that it is home to a variety of other animals, such as seals, whales, and walruses. The ideal living conditions for the Arctic Tern include plenty of food, a safe nesting area, and a warm climate.

Native country: N. America, Europe, Asia.

Native continent: This seabird is native to Europe, particularly in the northern parts of the continent.

Other organisms found in habitat: Zostera marina, Salicornia europaea, Limonium vulgare, Littorina littorea

Physical characteristics of the Sterna paradisaea

Appearance Summary: Sterna paradisaea is a medium-sized seabird with a white head, neck, and underparts, and grey upperparts. It has a black cap, a short, thin, black bill, and a long, forked tail. Its legs are black and its eyes are dark brown. It has a wingspan of up to 1.2 m and a body length of up to 40 cm. It is a strong flier and can be seen gliding low over the sea. It feeds mainly on small fish, crustaceans, and molluscs.

Facial description: Sterna paradisaea has a black cap, white forehead, and a white chin. Its bill is black and its eyes are dark brown. Its neck and upperparts are grey and its underparts are white. Its legs and feet are black. Its wings are grey with white tips.

What are the distinct features of Arctic Tern? Long, pointed wings, white body with black tips on wings and tail, black cap, yellow bill, loud, piercing calls, migratory, feeds on fish, crustaceans, and insects, nests on the ground in colonies, highly gregarious, often seen in large flocks

What makes them unique?

Arctic Tern body color description: The most common colors of Sterna paradisaea are white, gray, and black.

skin type: The exterior of Sterna paradisaea is smooth and glossy, with a white and grey coloration. Its feathers are soft and delicate, and its beak is sharp and pointed.

Strengths: Flight, Camouflage, Migration, Adaptability, Social Behavior

Weaknesses: Poor flying ability, Limited diet, Low reproductive rate, Limited habitat range, Susceptible to environmental changes, Vulnerable to predation, Low genetic diversity

Common Arctic Tern behavior

Sterna paradisaea behavior summary: The Sterna paradisaea, commonly known as the Arctic Tern, is a migratory bird that spends its summers in the Arctic and winters in the Antarctic. It is a strong flyer, capable of covering long distances in a single day. It is also a strong swimmer, using its webbed feet to propel itself through the water. To hide from predators, it will often dive underwater or hide in dense vegetation. To fight, it will use its sharp beak and talons to defend itself. It interacts with its environment by foraging for food, such as small fish, crustaceans, and insects. It also interacts with other organisms, such as forming large flocks with other terns.

How do they defend themselves? The Sterna paradisaea, commonly known as the Arctic Tern, defends itself from attacks by using its sharp beak and talons to peck and scratch at predators. It also has the ability to fly away quickly if it feels threatened.

How do Arctic Tern respond to stimuli in their environment? Vocalizations, Posture, Visual displays

How do Arctic Tern gather food? Sterna paradisaea, commonly known as the Arctic Tern, is a migratory bird that hunts for food by diving into the water and catching small fish. It needs a healthy marine environment to survive, and faces challenges such as overfishing and pollution. The Arctic Tern is an expert hunter, using its sharp eyesight and agility to quickly spot and catch its prey.

How do Arctic Tern communicate in their environment? Sterna paradisaea communicates with other organisms through vocalizations, visual displays, and physical contact. These behaviors are used to establish and maintain social relationships, defend territories, and attract mates. They also use chemical signals to mark their territories and to recognize other members of their species.

Examples: Sterna paradisaea,Visual,Uses its bright white plumage to attract potential mates; Sterna paradisaea,Vocal,Uses a variety of calls to communicate with other members of its species; Sterna paradisaea,Tactile,Uses physical contact to show affection and strengthen social bonds.

How does the Arctic Tern get territorial? Defend territory, Claim territory, Establish territory

Diet and Predators

Diet Summary: Sterna paradisaea primarily feeds on small fish, crustaceans, mollusks, and insects. It also consumes some plant material such as algae and seaweed. Toxic and unhealthy foods for this organism include plastic and other debris, which can be mistaken for food.

Predators: The most threatening predators of Sterna paradisaea, also known as the Arctic Tern, are large birds of prey such as eagles and hawks. Environmental changes such as climate change, habitat destruction, and pollution can also have a negative impact on the population growth of this species. These changes can lead to a decrease in food availability, nesting sites, and other resources necessary for the survival of the Arctic Tern.

Threats: Habitat Loss, Pollution, Overfishing, Climate Change, Predation by Gulls, Predation by Foxes

Life cycle & population of the Sterna paradisaea & Aves

Life cycle: Sterna paradisaea reproduces by laying eggs in a nest on the ground. The eggs hatch after about three weeks and the chicks are cared for by both parents. The chicks fledge after about five weeks and become independent after about two months. The adults molt and become reproductively mature after one year.

Average offspring size: 20-30 cm

Most common health issues: Respiratory Infections, Gastrointestinal Infections, Parasitic Infections, Stress-Related Illnesses, Nutritional Deficiencies

Threats: Habitat Loss, Pollution, Overfishing, Climate Change, Predation by Gulls, Predation by Foxes

Common diseases that threaten the Arctic Tern population: Avian Pox, Avian Influenza, Newcastle Disease, West Nile Virus, Salmonellosis, Botulism, Aspergillosis, Chlamydiosis, Trichomoniasis, Mycoplasmosis

Population: The population of Sterna paradisaea has been decreasing since the 1990s, with the lowest population recorded in 2010. The population has been slowly increasing since then, but is still below the peak population of 1.2 million individuals recorded in the 1980s. In 2020, the population was estimated to be around 0.8 million individuals.

Arctic Tern Environment

How do Arctic Tern adapt to their environment Sterna paradisaea, commonly known as the Arctic Tern, is an amazing bird that has adapted to its environment in a variety of ways. For example, it has a unique migration pattern that allows it to take advantage of the summer months in the Arctic and the winter months in the Antarctic. This allows it to take advantage of the food sources available in both regions. Additionally, its feathers are designed to keep it warm in the cold temperatures of the Arctic and Antarctic. Finally, its long wingspan allows it to fly long distances with minimal effort.

What's their social structure? Sterna paradisaea, commonly known as the Arctic Tern, is a migratory bird that lives in the Arctic and Antarctic regions. They are a top predator in their environment, feeding on small fish, crustaceans, and insects. They are also known to scavenge for food. They live in large colonies and form strong family bonds, often returning to the same nesting site year after year. They are highly social creatures, and will often flock together in large groups to migrate and feed. They are also known to be very protective of their young, and will fiercely defend their nests from predators. They are an important part of the food chain, providing food for larger predators such as foxes and polar bears.

How would you describe their survival instincts? The Sterna paradisaea, commonly known as the Arctic Tern, is an incredible migratory bird that has an impressive survival instinct. It is able to detect changes in the environment and respond to them accordingly. For example, when the days become shorter and the temperatures drop, the Arctic Tern will migrate to warmer climates in order to survive. It is also able to detect changes in food availability and will adjust its diet accordingly. The Arctic Tern is an amazing example of an organism that is able to respond to stimuli in order to survive.